Google’s Threat Analysis Group (TAG) revealed yesterday technical details of a zero-day vulnerability used by a North Korean Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) group.
The flaw, discovered in late October, is a Windows Scripting Languages Remote Code Execution (RCE) vulnerability tracked as CVE-2022-41128. It lets perpetrators exploit an Internet Explorer JScript engine shortcoming through malicious code embedded in Microsoft Office documents.
Microsoft addressed the vulnerability, which affects Windows 7 through 11 and Windows Server 2008 through 2022, in last month’s patch rollout.
According to Google’s TAG, North Korean government-backed actors weaponized the vulnerability and used it against South Korean users. The threat actors injected the malicious code into Microsoft Office documents referencing a tragic incident in Seoul, South Korea, to lure unsuspecting victims.
Researchers also discovered documents with “similar targeting,” likely exploiting the same vulnerability.
“The document downloaded a rich text file (RTF) remote template, which in turn fetched remote HTML content,” reads Google TAG’s security advisory. “Because Office renders this HTML content using Internet Explorer (IE), this technique has been widely used to distribute IE exploits via Office files since 2017 (e.g. CVE-2017-0199). Delivering IE exploits via this vector has the advantage of not requiring the target to use Internet Explorer as its default browser, nor to chain the exploit with an EPM sandbox escape.”
Typically, an infected document would bear the Mark-of-the-Web security feature. For an attack to succeed, users must manually disable the document’s protected view so the code can retrieve the remote RTF template.
While Google TAG didn’t recover a final payload for the malicious campaign attributed to APT37, experts noticed similar implants used by the perpetrators, including BLUELIGHT, DOLPHIN and ROKRAT. APT37-specific implants often exploit legitimate cloud services by turning them into C2 (command and control) and offer backdoor capabilities.
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